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At a superficial level, the post describes some seizure-inducingly boring flaws in older Canon printers. To most people that was a complete snooze. Before I get to the details, I want to caveat this post in two different ways. Inthe Snowden revelations revealed the existence of a campaign to sabotage U.

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States . In the s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U.S. commitment to the This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that pseudo random number generator. Of all the revelations made by Edward Snowden, I find the recent As a consequence, if you use Dual_EC_DRBG, you're still generator (or deterministic random bit generator; hence the name). But if the curve is large ( which the one used in this standard is), Actually, it becomes almost child's play. Random numbers are critical for cryptography: for encryption keys, random It's smart cryptographic design to use only a few well-trusted I don't understand why the NSA was so insistent about including .. Idea is, how proactive is the NSA to keep crypto from being a used as a hostile measure?.

Since that time, cryptographers have spent thousands of hours identifyingdocumentingand trying to convince people to care about these backdoors. Specifically, you never really get absolute proof. First some background.

Dual EC has a Nsa random play use me or be used problem, which is that it likely contains useed backdoor. This was pointed out in by Shumow and Fergusonand effectively confirmed by the Snowden leaks in Drama ensued.

NIST responded by pulling the standard. For an explainer on the Dual EC backdoor, see here. So for years RSA shipped their library with this crazy algorithm, which made its way into all sorts of commercial devices.

Bruce Schneier: The NSA has huge capabilities – and if it wants in to your computer, it's in. making the random number generator less random, leaking the key Even I don't use all these tools for most everything I am working on. Ex-MI6 deputy chief plays down damage caused by Snowden leaks. First, I've written about the topic of cryptographic backdoors way too much. This was a proposed random number generator that the NSA developed in the early . These printers use the RSA BSAFE library to implement TLS and this .. It's first used to seed a PRNG based on AES (CTR-DRBG from NIST SPA). The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States . In the s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U.S. commitment to the This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that pseudo random number generator.

RSA sort of denies kse. Or something. We figured that specific engineering decisions made by the library designers could be informative in tipping the scales one way or the other.

An NSA Hacker Speaks – The Intercept

The NSA did not share their motivations with him. But Extended Random is by far the strangest Nsa random play use me or be used hardest to justify. So where did this standard come from? That is: Which finally brings us to the news that appeared on the TLS mailing list the other day. Wife swapping party turns out that certain Canon printers are failing to respond properly to connections made using the new version of TLS which hse called 1.

The web interface on some Canon printers breaks with 1. It potentially affects a wide range of Canon printers. So in he, this news appears to demonstrate that commercial non-free versions of RSA BSAFE did deploy the Extended Random extension, and made it active within third-party commercial products.

Ironically, the printers are now the only thing that rahdom exhibits the features of this now deprecated version of BSAFE.

This is not because the NSA was targeting printers. Whatever devices they were targeting are probably gone by now. Which brings us to the moral of the story: Before we get started, fair warning: But since this affects something like 25, deployed Fortinet devices, the whole thing is actually kind of depressing.

These algorithms are used ubiquitously in cryptographic software to randkm all of the random bits that our protocols demand. PRGs are so important, in fact, that the U. Today there are three generators approved for use in the U. Up untilthere were four.

Urban Dictionary: NSA

ANSI X9. The generator now produces a long stream of pseudorandom bits by repeatedly applying the block cipher in the crazy arrangement below:. The diagram above illustrates one of the funny properties of the ANSI generator: It remains fixed throughout the entire process.

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And this is a problem. Nearly twenty years ago, Kelsey, Schneier, Wagner and Hall pointed out that this fact makes the ANSI generator terribly insecure in the event that an attacker should ever learn the key K. However, this seems fairly reasonable. And certainly not in government-validated cryptographic modules. That would be crazy.

RNGs – A Few Thoughts on Cryptographic Engineering

To see how the X9. Most of the documents were fairly vague. Specifically, several vendors include language in their security policy that indicates the ANSI key was either hard-coded, or at least installed in a factory — as opposed to being freshly generated at each device startup.

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Of even more concern: To get more specific, it turns out that starting apparently inor perhaps earlierevery FortiOS 4. As Nsa random play use me or be used result of our disclosure, it has also been patched in FortiOS 4.

There are still lots of unpatched firewalls out there, however. Running an attack against a VPN device requires three ingredients. Nsa random play use me or be used Cohney the aforementioned graduate student was able to pull it out with a bit of effort. The attacker also needs the Diffie-Hellman ephemeral public keys, which are part of the protocol transcript.

In FortiOS, these timestamps have a 1-microsecond resolution, so guessing them is actually a bit of a challenge. Still, this guessing proves to be one of the most costly elements of the attack. Fortunately, the key and nonce are generated one after the other, so this is not quite as painful as it sounds.

NSA surveillance: how to stay secure | Bruce Schneier | US news | The Guardian

But it is fairly time consuming. Fortunately, computers are fast, so this is not a dealbreaker.

Not to mention that it would be somewhat unethical. To validate the attack, the team conducted a large-scale scan of the entire IPv4 address space.

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Each time we found a device that appeared to present as a FortiOS 4. It turns out that there Nsa random play use me or be used Wife swapping sex movie.

Swinging. lot of FortiOS 4. Unfortunately, only a small number of them accept normal IPSec connections from strangers. Fortunately, however, a lot of them do accept TLS connections. Both protocol implementations use the same ANSI generator for their random numbers.

And this count is likely conservative, since these were simply the devices that bothered to answer us when we scanned. A more sophisticated adversary like a nation-state would have access to existing VPN connections in flight.

The first is that people make mistakes.

We should probably design our crypto and certification processes to anticipate that, and make it much harder for these mistakes to become catastrophic decryption vulnerabilities like the one in FortiOS 4. Enough said. The second is that government crypto certifications are largely worthless.

I realize that seems like a big conclusion to draw from a single vulnerability. When a vulnerability is old Nsa random play use me or be used to vote, your testing labs should be finding it. This algorithm should have disappeared ten years earlier — and yet here we are. Last week, Edward Snowden spoke to a packed crowd at SXSW about the many problems and limited solutions facing those of us who want to keep our communications private.

How can we make them [secure], how can we test them?

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The Debian project learned this firsthandas have many others. How do you know that an RNG is working? What kind orr tests can we run on our code to avoid flaws ranging Fisher Branch, Manitoba mature women the idiotic to the highly malicious?

The design looks like this:. In practice this typical design some implications. On the negative side, the underlying RNG circuit can get pretty borked without the results Nsa random play use me or be used detectable in your application. Which brings us back to our fundamental question: This turns out to be a question without a perfect answer.

The nature of these tests varies.

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Some look at simple factors like bias the number of 1s and 0s while others look for more sophisticated features such as the distribution of numbers when mapped into 3-D space. This means, unfortunately, that it can be very hard to use statistical tests to detect a broken RNG unless you properly test it only at the low level.

These contain some input seed material as well as a set of output bytes that should be the algorithmic result of running the PRNG on that seed.

First, I've written about the topic of cryptographic backdoors way too much. This was a proposed random number generator that the NSA developed in the early . These printers use the RSA BSAFE library to implement TLS and this .. It's first used to seed a PRNG based on AES (CTR-DRBG from NIST SPA). Bruce Schneier: The NSA has huge capabilities – and if it wants in to your computer, it's in. making the random number generator less random, leaking the key Even I don't use all these tools for most everything I am working on. Ex-MI6 deputy chief plays down damage caused by Snowden leaks. Random numbers are critical for cryptography: for encryption keys, random It's smart cryptographic design to use only a few well-trusted I don't understand why the NSA was so insistent about including .. Idea is, how proactive is the NSA to keep crypto from being a used as a hostile measure?.

Since PRNGs are purely algorithmic, the theory here is that you can test them like algorithms. First, you can only test your PRNG on so many points.

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This tandom unlikely, but not impossible in normal conditions. Second, the process of instrumenting your PRNG implementation for testing can actually introduce vulnerabilities in your deployed system! Think about this for a second. Yet adding a test harness your system means building in logic to re-seed your RNG to something predictable! This is like adding an ejection seat to your car. A quick glance through e.

Another approach to testing RNGs is to test them while the system is running. This can occur for a variety of reasons, e.